Reformand Opening-up，a Brilliant Stroke
InDecember 1978, the Third Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee of theCommunist Party of China (CPC) was held, ushering in the historic policy ofreform and opening up.
Ithas been proved over the following 40-plus years that reform and opening up isa vital step to seal the destiny of contemporary China.
Thereform firstly started from the countryside.
In1978, Xiaogang Village (in Fengyang County, Chuzhou City, Anhui Province)suffered a severe drought.
Togo through it, Yan Junchang, the leader of the village's production team,called together 18 householders to sit around a kerosene lamp and hold secretdiscussions on dividing the farmland among themselves.
The18 farmers put their fingerprints in red ink on a crumpled written agreement.
Thecontent of this contract was very simple.It read,“We allot farmland tohouseholds under contract.Each householder must give their signature orfingerprint here.
Ifit works, each household must ensure the fulfillment of contracted grain to thestate and promise not to ask for assistance from the government for grain andmoney.
Ifwe fail, we —the village leaders —are ready to be put in jail and other communemembers pledge to take care of all of our children until they are 18 yearsold."
Asthese farmers were scared and heavy-hearted, this historic contract was writtenin a scrawled way. There were even some wrongly written characters.
Theydid not expect that this contract made against the backdrop of hungerinadvertently became a manifesto of reform in rural areas.
Beforelong, China's rural reform kicked off nationwide.
Thehousehold contract responsibility system was widely introduced throughout thecountry.
Thepractice has proved that the implementation of the contract responsibilitysystem has enabled the broad masses of Chinese farmers to obtain the right tomanage land, which greatly aroused their initiative and developed ruralproductivity.
Theper capita GDP of the United States was 41 times that of China in 1965, andreached 76 times that of China (US$127) in 1978. The gap was still widening.
Europeancountries had established their highway networks, while in China there was nohighway at all; in Marseille of France, the annual output of 3.5 million metrictons of steel at the Salmer steel plant only required about 7,000 workers, whilenearly 67,000 workers just produced 2.3 million metric tons in the Wuhan ironand steel plant.
Whata huge gap between China and the West!
Basedon a series of investigations and discussions, the CPC Central Committeedecided to open up to the world for better development.
InJuly 1979, the CPC Central Committee and the State Council decided to implementspecial policies and preferential measures to facilitate foreign economicactivities in Guangdong and Fujian provinces, based on the favorable conditionsthat both provinces were adjacent to Hong Kong and Macao, and had a largenumber of overseas Chinese.
InMay 1980, China planned to set up special economic zones in Shenzhen, Zhuhaiand Shantou in Guangdong Province and Xiamen in Fujian Province.
Inthe following years, China opened up 14 coastal cities such as Dalian,Qinhuangdao, Tianjin and Yantai, opened up in two steps the Yangtze RiverDelta, Pearl River Delta, Xiamen-Zhangzhou-Quanzhou Triangle in southernFujian, Liaodong Peninsula and Jiaodong Peninsula,set up Hainan Province andestablished the Hainan Special Economic Zone.
However,at the critical moment of national development, some people questioned whetherthe reform and opening up should be surnamed socialism or capitalism, and beganto waver in their adherence to the Party's basic line.
Sucha misunderstanding seriously hindered the deepening of reform and opening up.Especially the severe criticism of the market economy made people worry aboutthe danger of turning back to old approaches.
Atthis crucial moment, Deng Xiaoping visited southern China and deliveredimportant speeches in early 1992, answering many questions that had longplagued people.
Hestressed that we should not waver in our adherence to the basic line, and thatplanning and market forces are both means of controlling economic activities.He proposed that the essence of socialism is to achieve common prosperity byliberating and developing productive forces, and we should seize theopportunity to improve ourselves .
InOctober 1992, the 14th National Congress of the CPC was held. The Congressestablished the guiding position of the theory of building socialism withChinese characteristics, made it clear that the goal of China's economic systemreform is to build a socialist market economic system, and required the wholeParty to seize the opportunity, accelerate development, and concentrate oneconomic construction.
Markedby Deng Xiaoping's talks during his southern tour and the 14th NationalCongress of the CPC, China's reform and opening up as well as socialistmodernization has since entered a new phase of development.
Thedirection determines the path, and the path determines the future.
Sincethe reform and opening up, the Chinese people have made fundamental achievementsunder the leadership of the CPC, that is, creating and developing socialismwith Chinese characteristics.
XiJinping, general secretary of the CPC Central Committee, said in 2013 that thepath of socialism with Chinese characteristics has not come easily. "Ithas been forged through more than 30 years of reform and opening up, throughmore than 60 years of continuous exploration since the founding of the People'sRepublic of China, through the profound summary of more than 170 years ofdevelopment of the Chinese nation in modern times, and through the inheritanceof the over 5,000-year-oldChinese civilization. It has a profound historicalorigin and an extensive practical foundation."
Now,what matters most is to unswervingly follow this path, keep pace with the timesto expand this path, and continue to open up the path of socialism with Chinesecharacteristics.
《紅星何以照耀中國》 / 中國網出品
出品人 / 王曉輝
總監制 / 楊新華
總策劃 / 蔡曉娟
執行策劃 / 蔣新宇
專家顧問 / 陳述 中共中央黨校教授 陳中奎 中國人民解放軍國防大學副教授
導演 / 仇俊博
編導 / 申罡 時暢 郭澤涵 魯波 孔竟澤
設計 / 顧榕楠
制作 / 馬躍
翻譯 / 汪瑋 李秀宇
攝影 / 陶世欣 毛歡東
后期 / 于舜源 傅華洋